Advantages of Zirconia Ceramic

Zirconia ceramic is an all-purpose ceramic material with many applications across various industries, from aerospace to health care and beyond. Due to its properties, zirconia makes an ideal material for producing parts and products designed specifically for diverse professional uses.

Yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) is a tetragonal phase fine grain material which offers the strongest flexural strength among all Zirconia-based materials, as well as transformation toughening properties that help prevent crack propagation.


Zirconia ceramic is highly resilient, boasting a Mohs scale rating of over 7 to make it second only to diamond in terms of hardness. This makes zirconia ceramic extremely strong and resilient to damage; further adding durability to zirconia dental materials.

Stabilized zirconia has found widespread application in industrial applications, from oxygen sensors and fuel cells to sensors used for measuring air pollution. Due to its superior corrosion resistance at temperatures well beyond its melting point of alumina, stabilized zirconia is used extensively due to its ability to handle very high temperatures without breaking or cracking due to doping with calcium, magnesium and yttrium oxides which prevent any changes to crystal structure during sintering causing the ceramic material to fracture or crack during processing.

Zirconia ceramic is well known for its superior mechanical properties compared to other advanced ceramics, including high flexural strength and fracture toughness. It can endure heavy loads without succumbing to failure; in fact, its flexural strength is twice that of alumina! Furthermore, it boasts lower coefficient of thermal expansion which ensures tight fits with metals such as steel.

Yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is widely utilized in dentistry due to its ability to resist bending forces that occur over a tooth's lifetime, as well as thermal shock resistance - two crucial characteristics needed for restorations exposed to different temperature extremes.

Studies conducted recently demonstrated that zirconia's flexural strength, fracture toughness and resistance to fatigue are comparable to metal-ceramic FPDs - suggesting it as a viable option when creating dental restorations. Long-term clinical studies of zirconia-veneering porcelain composites will need to be performed to corroborate these findings, and provide further proof of safety and longevity of Y-TZP restorations.

Thermal Conductivity

YTZP features an exceptionally high thermal conductivity (roughly twice that of alumina) which makes it suitable for improving ceramic performance in various applications. YTZP is also an integral component in Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA), used widely across automotive and aerospace industries. Furthermore, being stabilized with yttrium ensures it resists corrosion as well as high temperatures - and comes in different colors that can be polished to an extremely lustrous luster finish.

MSZ stands out among dental restorative materials with its chemical and thermal stability and outstanding strength, making it a top pick. Biocompatible with human bone, highly lustrous MSZ also endures abrasive environments well, but should be avoided for prolonged water immersion or high temperature usage.

Under pressure, MSZ may undergo a transition from its meta-stable tetragonal phase to its stable monoclinic phase, altering particle shape and expanding to reduce crack tip brittleness and enhance toughness while simultaneously raising its melting point to approximately 1,600deg C.

MSZ material can vary in its appearance depending on its preparation process; its hue may range from ivory to yellowish orange depending on the amount and type of stabilizers present in its raw materials. Ivory colored MSZ tends to have superior mechanical properties. Other factors have contributed to bonding failure between veneering porcelain and zirconia framework, including factors like differences in cooling rates, liner materials, ageing effects and coloring pigments; using conditioning techniques before pressing veneering material onto zirconia may help overcome such challenges.

Chemical Inertness

Zirconia ceramic is inert to most chemicals, which makes them an ideal candidate for replacing steels, hardened alloys and tungsten carbides in applications where corrosion or wear are an issue. Furthermore, their combination of strength, toughness and reliability ensure they offer outstanding resistance against both chemical attack and wear-and-tear.

Zirconia that has been stabilized with yttrium oxide (Y2O3) is known as Y-PSZ and features one of the highest fracture toughness values among all zirconia materials. Thanks to yttria's addition, Y-PSZ can also undergo phase transformation toughening that allows compressive stresses that help suppress crack growth while prolonging product lifespans.

YTZP offers superior flexural and compression strengths, as well as comparable or better abrasion resistance than that of WCu and BN, making it suitable for demanding mechanical environments. Furthermore, its electrical properties include being able to withstand high temperatures without experiencing surface oxidation or degradation over time.

YTZP ceramic features low thermal conductivity that makes it suitable for applications like solid oxide fuel cells and ceramic coating or insulation applications. Furthermore, its high melting point makes YTZP ideal for heating to extreme temperatures in applications that need heating up quickly.

Technical ceramics have long been recognized for their superior performance in operating environments that degrade other materials, making them an excellent replacement material for metals and plastics. STC's YTZP ceramic possesses strength, toughness, abrasion resistance and chemical inertness to withstand environments which quickly deteriorate plastics or metals - such as pistons, sleeves, bearings guides and insulators - among many other structural applications. It can even withstand environments which would quickly degrade plastics or metals - unlike plastics or metals which would quickly degrade plastics or metals compared to plastics or metals.


Zirconia ceramic boasts superior toughness and impact resistance among technical ceramics, outdoing metals and plastics in terms of shock loads and vibration resistance. Zirconia's microstructure and chemistry determine its toughness; STC provides several stabilized zirconia materials tailored for specific applications with the strongest material being Yttria Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia P (Y-TZP), featuring pure tetragonal phase fine grain material with the highest flexural strength flexural strength among zirconia-based materials as well as transformation toughening which helps resist crack propagation.

Zirconia boasts exceptional mechanical properties, so for it to function at its optimal best it must have a core-veneer bond strong enough to withstand physiological posterior forces. Care should be taken when choosing veneering porcelain that will be exposed to these forces; many factors contribute to core-veneer bond strength including framework surface treatments, veneer porcelain thickness and liner material composition, color pigments as well as color pigment placement within fabrication processes [71, 72]. It is vitally important that all these parameters are accurately controlled during fabrication so as to prevent chipping of zirconia beneath.

Zirconia sintering processes may introduce thermally-induced residual stresses that alter biaxial flexure strength measurements of zirconia-veneer composites, potentially leading to reduced strength or even failure. [73]

To reduce these problems, the zirconia-veneer interface must be made as smooth as possible by means of grinding and polishing techniques. Furthermore, its manufacturing method should be reviewed to ensure it works with the zirconia framework; using pressed veneering has proven particularly successful at improving core-veneer bond strength while simultaneously decreasing core wear over time.

Wear Resistance

Zirconia ceramic is extremely strong and long-wearing, resistant to both abrasion and scratching, with excellent toughness which reduces microfracture, thus eliminating debris that would otherwise wear down opposing tooth surfaces or cause microfractures on those teeth. As an additional bonus, their smooth surfaces make zirconia an excellent bearing surface material - further increasing long-term reliability over metal restorations. They may even be polished into exceptionally smooth finishes for even greater bearing surface durability.

Hardness doesn't always correlate to wear resistance, however. In environments with third body abrasive wear particles present, zirconia isn't usually the superior material (e.g. alumina). Instead, its superior flexural strength and abrasion resistance make it better suited to antagonist wear applications where its performance outpaces other ceramic materials.

Surface roughness is a critical factor influencing antagonist wear [3, 4]. Irregularities on ceramic surfaces cause micro-roughness that exacerbates wear rates, potentially due to intraoral occlusal adjustment, surface treatment methods or differing levels of abrasion. Even though this form of wear typically provides good wear performance, for optimal results it is recommended that an ideal intraoral occlusal adjustment be applied and excess abrasion of opposing teeth be prevented in order to keep wear levels optimally attained [5, 6].

STC offers several varieties of stabilized zirconia, each with their own set of properties. Of the available types, Yttrium Oxyde Partially Stabilized Zirconia stands out as being particularly strong; boasting impressive bending strength and wear resistance; its addition of yttria allows phase transformation toughening to increase fracture resistance; this enables zirconia to withstand impact from heavy loads as well as chemical abrasion slurries abrasion without cracking under impact from heavy loads while it does not manage rapid temperature changes as effectively due to rapid temperature change compared to ceramic counterparts such as Alumina or Silicon Nitride Ceramic which may make it less suitable in some environments